Bobylev, A. These objects were the nearest Hipparcos stars of spectral classes O—B2. The most significant component of motion of all these stars is induced by the spiral density wave.
To properly analyse Galactic orbits, this motion should be removed from the observed velocities of stars, since it characterizes only the Solar orbit — namely, its deviation from the purely circular orbit.
There are several ways to determine the peculiar velocity of the Sun with respect to the LSR. Another method is based on transferring stellar velocities towards their origin.
Therefore, the youngest stars are not normally used in this method. Cepheids and other youngest objects fall into this area, which allows us to include them in our analysis. For these stars, we consider not only the impact of the differential rotation of the Galaxy, but also the influence of the spiral density wave. Our approach departs from the above in that the distances r are known quite well.
It consists in determining the symmetric tensor of moments or the tensor of residual stellar velocity dispersions. When simultaneously using the stellar line-of-site velocities and proper motions to find the six unknown components of the dispersion tensor, we have six equations for each star. In addition, the sample contains Hipparcos van Leeuwen stars of spectral types from B0 to B2. In this work, we solve the problem of determining the peculiar velocity of the Sun.
This problem can be solved most reliable using the closest stars to the Sun. Therefore, from the data base, including stars, we have selected stars from the Solar neighbourhood of 0.
These masers are connected with very young objects basically proto stars of high masses, but there are ones with low masses too; a number of massive super giants are known as well located in active star-forming regions. VLBI observations of radio stars in continuum at 8. In this work, we use only data on the nearby maser sources, which are located no farther than 1. Note that line-of-site velocities of masers given in the literature usually refer to the standard apex of the Sun. So we fix such line-of-site velocities, making them heliocentric.My account.
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The distance scale for OB-associations should be shortened by 10—20 per cent. The residual velocities of OB-associations calculated for the new and old reductions differ, on average, by 3. The mean residual velocities of OB-associations in the stellar-gas complexes depend only slightly on the data reduction employed. The original data from the Hipparcos satellite were obtained in the form of time moments for transitions of stars through the diffraction grating which were then transformed into the angular positions along the scan direction Kovalevsky A better understanding of the peculiarities in the rotation of the satellite and increased computer power allowed van Leeuwen to abandon the intermediate reduction on the great circle, which was one of the sources of noise.
In this paper, we compare the proper motions, parallaxes and residual velocities of OB-associations derived for the old Hipparcos and new van Leeuwen reductions of the Hipparcos data. We also determine the parameters of the Galactic rotation curve and improve the distance scale for OB-associations.
A good agreement between the old and new results is indicative of high quality of the astrometric data obtained for bright stars. OB-associations are large groups of high-luminosity stars, though the sky-plane size of most of them does not exceed pc. They often have several centres of concentration. All associations considered here are unbound objects.
Membership in the associations is based on positions, spectral type, luminosity and resulting photometric distance.
The mass measurements of proper motions of blue stars became available due to the inclusion of a list of OB stars into the Hipparcos input catalogue de Zeeuw et al. Thus, they are bright enough, and we can expect a conspicuous increase in the accuracy of their astrometric data. The OB-associations have quite reliable distances, which are accurate, on the average, to 6 per cent without the allowance for the uncertainty of the zero-point of the distance scale see the Appendix.
Table 1available in full as Supporting Information in the online version of this article, gives the line-of-sight velocities and proper motions of OB-associations based on the kinematical data of individual stars. We used the median estimations instead of mean values for velocities to reduce the influence of stars whose velocities deviate strongly from the mean value. The data obtained for the reduction of Hipparcos are denoted by subscript 1, whereas those based on the reduction by van Leeuwen are marked by subscript 2.
The last column gives the total number of stars with known photometric measurements, N tused to determine the distances for OB-associations. Sample of the line-of-sight velocities and proper motions of OB-associations.
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The full table is available as Supporting Information. We determine the median proper motions for 64 OB-associations containing at least two stars with known proper motions and the median line-of-sight velocities for 70 OB-associations containing at least two stars with known line-of-sight velocities.
The velocity of each OB-association is based, on average, on 12 line-of-sight velocities and 11 proper motions of individual stars. Let us consider a sample of 64 OB-associations containing at least two stars with known proper motions.
It is immediately apparent that the new reduction does not bring dramatic changes into proper motions of OB-associations. That does not exceed the standard deviation of the velocities of OB-associations from the rotation curve. The proper motions of 64 OB-associations derived for the old index 1 and new index 2 reductions of the Hipparcos data: a proper motions along l -coordinate and b those along b -coordinate.
Note that the values given here are very much sample dependent. The pluses and dots show the associations lying within 1 kpc and beyond 1 kpc from the Sun, respectively. Generally, we see a weak decrease in the dispersions of proper motions in the new reduction.
The mean dispersion in the plane of the sky decreases to 1. The dispersions of the observed proper motions for 29 OB-associations obtained for the old index 1 and new index 2 reductions of the Hipparcos data: a proper motions along l -coordinate and b those along b -coordinate. The decrease is due to changes in the proper motions of the stars HD and We use van Leeuwen's data to calculate the trigonometric parallaxes p t for OB-associations as the median values of the parallaxes of individual stars.Few studies have investigated the associations of comorbid migraine with other painful physical symptoms PPS in patients with major depressive disorder MDD at the two-year follow-up point.
This study aimed to investigate this issue. At baseline, outpatients with MDD were enrolled. Migraine was diagnosed at baseline according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders. At follow-up, data of subjects were analyzed. Multiple linear regressions were used to investigate the associations of migraine at baseline with other PPS at follow-up. Compared with the migraine with inactive headache group and the non-migraine group, patients with migraine with active headache had significantly higher intensities of other PPS and a lower remission rate of depression.
There were no significant differences in the pain intensities of the other seven PPS between the migraine with inactive headache group and the non-migraine group.
Headache intensity was significantly correlated with the intensities of other PPS at baseline and follow-up. Migraine with active headache independently predicted other PPS after controlling for depression and anxiety at baseline. Prevention and treatment of headache might help to decrease other PPS and improve the prognosis of depression. Integration of treatment for depression and headache is indicated. PPS and depression interact closely [ 23 ].
Among patients with major depressive disorder MDDPPS are common [ 45 ], and are associated with worse depression, an increased suicidal risk, functional impairment, a poorer quality of life, and a poorer treatment response [ 2 — 6 ]. Mood disorders and migraine are closely related [ 7 — 10 ]. Migraine is a common comorbidity among patients with MDD [ 11 — 13 ]. Shared underlying genetically-determined disease mechanisms of migraine and depression have been reported [ 1415 ].
Among patients with MDD, comorbidity with migraine was found to be related to greater severities of depression and anxiety, and had a negative impact on recovery of health-related quality of life post-pharmacotherapy [ 9111216 ]. In a general population, migraine or severe headache are associated with increased other PPS [ 17 ].
Among patients with MDD, migraine was also found to be associated with increased other somatic and pain symptoms [ 1213 ]. Moreover, migraine was also associated with an increased suicidal risk [ 818 ]. As described above, depression, migraine, and PPS interact closely [ 212 — 141920 ].
Although previous studies have reported the impacts of migraine on somatic symptoms or PPS among patients with MDD [ 1213 ], these studies were cross- sectional or short-term follow-up studies.
One study reported that migraine independently predicted the intensities of eight PPS at baseline and four PPS post-four-week pharmacotherapy among patients with MDD [ 12 ]. Moreover, one study focused on the associations of migraine with muscle soreness or pain among patients with MDD, and found that migraine at baseline could independently predict muscle soreness or pain in the upper and lower limbs at the two-year follow-up point [ 21 ].
However, the associations of migraine with other pains such as chest pain, abdominal pain, and joint pain at the two-year follow-up point among patients with MDD have not been studied in depth.Accelerate backup speed, reduce storage costs and use the cloud for disaster recovery. Diagnose SQL Server performance issues quickly and accurately for a healthy database infrastructure. Complete AD disaster recovery at the object, directory and OS level across the entire forest.
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